anumāna


Fragments


Fragment 5687
bhāviviktas tv āha – na hi sarvatra nimittānurūpaḥ pratyaya iṣyate. tathā hi gajaturagadhavakhadirādisamavāyinī bahutvasaṅkhyā senāvanādibuddhīnāṃ nimittam, pānakakāñjikādibuddhīnāṃ vijātīyadravyasaṃyogo nimittam, anyathā hi bahavaḥ saṃyuktā iti ca pratyayaḥ syād – iti.

Author(s): Bhāvivikta
Sources: TSP (1) 309,26-310,13; TSP 251,5-8

Details


Fragment 785
yad apy atra adhyayanādyuktaṃ pratisamādhānam – yathā śvamāṃsāśucyādīnāṃ svata eva aśucitvam anyeṣāṃ ca bhāvānāṃ tadyogāt tat tathehāpi tādātmyād viśeṣeṣu svata eva vyāvṛttapratyayahetutvaṃ paramāṇvādiṣu tu tadyogāt. kiṃ ca, atadātmakeṣv api anyanimittaḥ pratyayo bhavaty eva yathā pradīpāt paṭādiṣu na punaḥ paṭādibhyaḥ pradīpe evaṃ viśeṣebhya eva aṇvādau viśiṣṭapratyayaḥ na aṇvādibhya – ityādikam, tad api asaṃgatam.

Author(s): Adhyayana
Sources: TBV 699,13-17

Details


Fragment 2685
tena yad ucyate 'viddhakarṇena – satyam anumānam iṣyata evāsmābhiḥ pramāṇaṃ lokapratītatvāt kevalaṃ liṅgalakṣaṇam ayuktam – iti tad apāstam.

Author(s): Aviddhakarṇa, Aviddhakarṇa (Lokāyata/Cārvāka)
Sources: PVSVṬ 19,3f

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Fragment 2674
aviddhakarṇas tattvaṭīkāyām āha – nanu vā pramāṇena kim iti paraḥ pratipādyate, ubhayasiddhaṃ hi pratipādakaṃ bhavatīti. tad etad ayuktam. yasmād vacanātmakam anumānam na ca vaktuḥ pramāṇam, atha ca vaktā tena paraṃ pratipādayati, parapratipādanārthatvāt prayāsasya, nāvaśyam ubhayasiddhena prayojanam – iti.

Author(s): Aviddhakarṇa, Aviddhakarṇa (Lokāyata/Cārvāka)
Sources: TSP (1) 529,13-16; TSP 432,22-25

Details


Fragment 2013
yaś cāpy āha – kartuḥ prasiddhiḥ karaṇaprasidder – iti.

Author(s): unidentified
Sources: TSP 89,21; TSP (1) 115,7

Details


Fragment 2535
yac coktaṃ tattvavṛttāv udbhaṭena – lakṣaṇakāriṇā lāghavikatvenaiva śabdaviracanavyavasthā, na caitāvatānumānasya gauṇatā, yadi ca sādhyaikadeśadharmidharmatvaṃ heto rūpaṃ brūyus te, tadā na kācil lakṣaṇe ‘pi gauṇī vṛttiḥ – iti.

Author(s): Udbhaṭa
Sources: SVR 265,16-19

Details


Fragment 6528
idam aparaṃ tadīyam eva prāṇamam – ye rūpatvādisāmānyāśrayāḥ, ye ca tadāśrayāḥ tadviṣayāś ca ye pratyakṣānumānopamānaśābdasmr̥tipratyabhijñānārthasiddhadarśanāreka­viparyayānu­vyavasāya­svapnasvapnāntikāḥ prajñānaviśeṣāḥ, te sarve svātmalābhānantarapradhvaṃsino na bhavanti, jñeyatva­prameya­tvābhi­dheyatv­asadasadanyataratva­sadasadvyatiriktajñeyaviṣayajñānānavacchedya­tvāgrāhyaviṣayagrahaṇāgrāhyatvānabhidheyābhi­dhāyakānabhidheyatvasamānāsamāna­jātīyadravyasaṃyogavibhāga­janitaśabdakāryaśabdābhidheyatvebhyaḥ, prāgabhāvādivat. – tatra rūpatvādisāmānyāśrayā rūpādayaḥ, teṣāṃ ca rūpādīnām āśrayāḥ tad āśrayāḥ, ke te? ghaṭādayaḥ. siddhidarśanam = yogivijñānam.

Author(s): Bhāvivikta
Sources: TSP (1) 203,5-12

Details


Fragment 6425
syād buddhiḥ samūhavācakaśabdavācyatvād ity evaṃ bhāviviktena bhāṣyaṭīkāyāṃ prayogād vyadhikaraṇatvaṃ nāsti. evaṃ manyate na tāvad ayam uddyotakareṇaivaṃ prayuktasya vāyam asmābhir doṣo 'bhidhātum ārabdho, ye 'pi saṃpraty anyathā prayuñjate teṣām api yady ayaṃ doṣo na bhavati.

Author(s): Bhāvivikta, Bhāvivikta (Nyāya) , Uddyotakara
Sources: VNṬ (1) 88,16-18; VNṬ (2) 85,11-14

Details


Fragment 13832
saptavidhaḥ sambandhaḥ – iti.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 94,4; PSṬ 2 (II) 86a1

Details


Fragment 13850
saptavidhatvam – sambaddhānām arthānāṃ svasvāmibhāvena vā – ityādibhāṣyavacanāt.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 94,4f; PSṬ 2 (II) 86a1

Details


Fragment 13894
svasvāmibhāvena vā – iti – rājabhṛtyavat pradhānapuruṣavac ca.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (II) 86a2; PSṬ 2 (I) 94,7

Details


Fragment 5981
nyāyabhāṣyaṭīkāvārtikayor viśvarūpoddyotakarāv āhatuḥ – purāviṣayanirūpaṇapūrvakam eva kāraṇavyāpāraṇaṃ dr̥ṣṭam. karaṇaṃ ca sādhanaṃ vyāpāryitavyam. ato viṣayanirūpaṇaṃ sādhyavacanena kriyate. anyathā karaṇapravartanasyāśakyakriyatvāt.

Author(s): Uddyotakara, Viśvarūpa
Sources: DhPr 175

Details


Fragment 13951
tena yathāsambhavaṃ sambandhād ekasmāt – iti.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 95,8; PSṬ 2 (II) 86a6

Details


Fragment 43188
pariśeṣād āvītasiddhir [ity etad āvītalakṣaṇam. asya bhāṣyam.] yadā* nedam ato ’nyathā sambhavati, asti cedam, tasmāt pariśeṣād dhetur evāyam ity avadhārya kāryasiddhāv apadiśyate**, tadā āvītākhyo*** bhavatī[ti]. [*: yadā em. (NĀA 314,1, cf. YD 89,9) : yathā Ms. (cf. ji skad du Tib.). **apadiśyate em. (NĀA 314,2, cf. YD 89,10) : api diśyate Ms. (cf. yang ston pa Tib.). ***āvītākhyo em. (NĀA 314,3, cf. YD 89,10) : āvītākhyā Ms.]

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: DNCVṛ 314,1-3; PSṬ 3 (Ms B) B158b7-159a1; YD (3) 89,9; Frauwallner 1958 125,7-9

Details


Fragment 42921
tatra hy uktaṃ – yad etat sāmānyatodṛṣṭam anumānaṃ śeṣavat, eṣa hetur atīndriyāṇāṃ bhāvānāṃ samadhigame. tasya prayogopacāraviśeṣād dvaividhyaṃ vīta āvīta iti.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 3 (Ms B) 152a5f.; DNCVṛ 313,8-10; Frauwallner 1958 125,3-5

Details


Fragment 43318
sādhanasamāsavacanaṃ hetur – iti lakṣaṇāt.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 3 (Ms B) B153a6; DNCVṛ 314,5; YD (3) 90,15; Frauwallner 1958 125,11-13 = Kl. Schr. 264

Details


Fragment 43352
tannidarśanaṃ dṛṣṭānta – iti dṛṣṭāntalakṣaṇam.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 3 (Ms B) 154a3; DNCVṛ 314,5; YD (3) 90,21; Frauwallner 1958 125,12 = Kl. Schr. 264

Details


Fragment 43391
sādhyadṛṣṭāntayor ekakriyopasaṃhāraḥ

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 3 (Ms B) 154a1; DNCVṛ 314,5; YD (3) 91,3; Frauwallner 1958 125,12-13

Details


Fragment 43520
tadvaśāt – pratijñābhyāso nigamanam

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: YD (3) 91,9; DNCVṛ 314,5-6; Frauwallner 1958 125,13 = Kl. Schr. 264,13

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Fragment 43729
asti pradhānam, bhedānām anvayadarśanāt,

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: Frauwallner 1958 125,16 = Kl. Schr. 264,16

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Fragment 43819
asti pradhānam, bhedānām anvayadarśanāt,

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: Frauwallner 1958 125,16 = Kl. Schr. 264,16 S

Details


Fragment 43921
asti pradhānam, bhedānām anvayadarśanāt, ādhyātmikānāṃ bhedānāṃ kāryakāraṇabhūtānām ekajātisamanvayo dṛṣṭo yāvac chabdasparśarūparasagandhāḥ pāñca trayāṇāṃ sukhaduḥkhamohānāṃ sanniveśaviśeṣāḥ, kasmāt, pañcānāṃ pañcānām ekakāryabhāvād ityādi vistaravacanam

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 3 (Ms B) 153a4-5 (D194a2-4; P220b2-4)

Details


Fragment 9511
tathā cāhuḥ – pramāṇasyāgauṇatvād anumānārthaniścayo durlabhaḥ

Author(s):
Sources: NM Part 1: 177,1

Details


Fragment 2782
purandaras tv āha – lokaprasiddham anumānaṃ cārvākair apīṣyata eva, yat tu kaiścil laukikaṃ mārgam atikramyānumānam ucyate tan niṣidhyata – iti. etad āśaṅkya dūṣayann āha laukikam ityādi.

Author(s): Purandara
Sources: TSP 431,26-28; TSP (1) 528,9-11

Details


Fragment 10133
tatra – evaṃvidhaprasiddhasambandhasyārthaikadeśam asandigdhaṃ paśyataḥ śeṣānuvyavasāyo yaḥ sa liṅgadarśanāt sañjāyamāno laiṅgikam – iti vṛttikāraḥ.

Author(s): Vṛttikāra (V3)
Sources: VSūVṛ 69,16-18

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Fragment 4765
atrāviddhakarṇopanyastam īśvarasādhane pramāṇadvayam (... TS 47f ...). tad uktam – dvīndriyagrāhyāgrāhyaṃ vimatyadhikaraṇabhāvāpannaṃ buddhimatkāraṇapūrvakam, svārambhakāvayavasanniveśaviśiṣṭatvāt, ghaṭādivat, vaidharmyeṇa paramāṇava – iti.

Author(s): Aviddhakarṇa, Aviddhakarṇa (Nyāya)
Sources: TSP (1) 52,16-18; TSP 41,14-20

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Fragment 2843
prayogaḥ – ye bhinnakartṛkāryakālaparimāṇās te vibhinnāḥ yathā stambhakumbhādayaḥ, vibhinnakartṛkāryakālaparimāṇāś ca vicāraviṣayāḥ. nāsiddho hetur nāpy anaikāntikaḥ. viruddhadharmādhyāsamātranibandhano hi bhāvānāṃ parasparato bhedaḥ, yathā stambhādīnāṃ sa cāvayavāvayavinor apy asti. tathā hi -- tantūnāṃ yoṣitkartrī, paṭasya kuvindaḥ, śītāpanodādikāryasamarthaḥ paṭo na tantavaḥ, prāg api tantūnām upalabdheḥ pūrvakālabhāvitvaṃ, paṭasya tu paścāt kuvindādivyāpārottarakālabhāvitvam, paṭasyāyām avistarābhyāṃ yāvat pramāṇaṃ na tāvat pratyekaṃ tantūnām astīti bhinnaparimāṇatvam ato nānaikāntikatā hetūnām – iti bhāvaḥ.

Author(s): Aviddhakarṇa, Aviddhakarṇa (Nyāya)
Sources: TSP 189,9-15

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Fragment 118122
viśeṣaḥ punaḥ – cārvākair lokayātrānirvāhaṇapravaṇaṃ dhūmādyanumānam iṣyate kvacana, na punaḥ svargādṛṣṭādiprasādhakam alaukikam anumānam – iti.

Author(s):
Sources: TRD (1) 306,14–15; Steinkellner 2017 7

Details


Fragment 120588
dvividham anumānam iti – tatra viśeṣadṛṣṭaṃ yadāgnidhūmasambandhaṃ dṛṣṭvā tenaiva dhūmena tasyaivāgneḥ punaḥ punar astitvaṃ pratipadyate – sa evāyam agnir iti. sāmānyatodṛṣṭam, yat kvacid dhūmāgnisambandhaṃ dṛṣṭvottarakālaṃ dhūmamātradarśanād agnisāmānyānumānam. etad api sāmānyatodṛṣṭam anumānaṃ dvividham, pūrvavac cheṣavac ca. tatra pūrvavat, yadā kāraṇam anyūnaṃ dṛṣṭvā bhaviṣyattvaṃ kāryasya pratipadyate. tad yathā meghodayaṃ dṛṣṭvā bhaviṣyattvaṃ vṛṣṭeḥ. śeṣavat, yadā kāryanirvṛttiṃ dṛṣṭvā bhūtatvaṃ kāraṇasya pratipadyate. tad yathā navavṛddhajalāṃ nadīṃ dṛṣṭvā bhūtatvaṃ meghasya. tatra pūrvavad anumānaṃ vyabhicāri, śeṣavat savicāram avyabhicāri. teṣāṃ yad etat sāmānyatodṛṣṭam anumānaṃ śeṣavat, eṣa hetur atīndriyāṇāṃ bhāvānāṃ samadhigame – iti.

Author(s):
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 110,5-15

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Fragment 124868
vītāvītabhedād - iti. tatra hy uktam – yad etat sāmānyatodṛṣṭam anumānaṃ śeṣavat, eṣa hetur atīndriyāṇāṃ bhāvānāṃ samadhigame.1 tasya prayogopacāraviśeṣād dvaividhyam – vīta āvīta – iti.

Author(s):
Sources: PSṬ 3 152a5-6

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Fragment 14495
dvividham anumānam – iti.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 110,5; PSṬ 2 (II) 91b2

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Fragment 14000
siddhihetur – iti.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 96,1; PSṬ 2 (II) 86b1

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Fragment 13868
sambaddhānām arthānām – iti ca nirdeśāt sūtre karmasādhanaḥ sambandhaśabdo jñeyaḥ.

Author(s): Vārṣagaṇya
Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 94,5f

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Reports



Report 6515
nanv anenānumānena bādhyate sarvahetuṣu /
vyāptiḥ sarvopasaṃhārā pratijñārthasya vā kṣatiḥ //
vivakṣitārkacandrādiviṣayaṃ yat pravartate /
jñānaṃ tatkālasambaddhasūryādiviṣayaṃ param //
pārthivāviṣayatve hi tajjñānatvābhidhānataḥ /
tad yathā prathamaṃ jñānaṃ tatkālārkādigocaram //
rūpatvādyāśrayāḥ sarve ye ca teṣāṃ samāśrayāḥ /
ye ca tadviṣayāḥ kecij jāyante pratyayās tathā //
utpānānantaraṃ dhvaṃsabhājo naiva bhavanti ye /
prameyatvābhidheyatvahetutaḥ khāravindavat //


Sources: TS 462-466; TS (1) 461-465

Details


Report 14475
śeṣavac cānumānam atīndriyārthādhigamahetur – uktaḥ śāstre.

Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 109,8f; PSṬ 2 (II) 91a6

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Report 118757
asakṛd vā – ity anenāpi viśeṣadṛṣṭākhyaṃ yad anumānam, tat pramāṇāntaram iti darśayati. tad yathā – pratyakṣenaikadā paricchinne vahnau dhūme ca punaḥ paryāyeṇa tenaiva dhūmena yadā sa evāyaṃ vahnir iti paricchinatti —, tadā tad viśeṣadṛṣṭākhyam agnigrahaṇaṃ pramāṇāntaraṃ sāmānyatodṛṣṭād anumānāt.

Sources: PSṬ 1 (I) 29,11–30,2

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Report 124856
śeṣavac cānumānam atīndriyārthādhigamahetuḥ – uktaḥ śāstre.

Sources: PSṬ 2 (I) 109,8-9

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